By Bob Webster
Modern science, in its professed search for truth, has frequently ignored, avoided or suppressed plain, clear, obvious evidences which may appear to conflict with the pet theory of organic evolution. Our school students and society in general are being robbed of exposure to these clear and stimulating evidences of earth’s true composition, history and origin. TRUE SCIENCE, if it would honestly and objectively follow the scientific method of investigation would explode into a new age of discovery.
But can naked truth withstand the negative onslaught from the traditional educational and “scientific” communities? Seldom on earth has the truth been accepted by a majority of mankind – not in religion, not in science and not in politics.
Following are some questions about our everyday earth for which modern science still has no true answers, only theories. In his 21st century enlightenment, man still does not know:
* What gravity is.
* What electricity is.
* What caused the continents.
* How mountains came to be.
* How the sea became salty.
* What the earth is like five miles beneath the surface.
* Where oil came from.
* Whether the earth has ever had a different axis than now.
* Why there are more comets than planets.
* Why planets orbit around the sun in eccentric paths, are variable in their rotations upon their axes, move in differing directions around the sun, have different atmospheres, have widely differing satellite moons, etc.
* How the solar system originated.
In his book, WORLDS IN COLLISION, Immanual Velikovsky presents many HUMAN EVIDENCES that are already known and available for the truth seeker or honest scientist to analyze and evaluate. These verified, written and oral histories describe events that have taken place on earth during the lifetime of man. Consider the significance of these historical facts, as summarized below.
? Most of the surface of the earth has been broken up and altered by powerful and sudden catastrophes in man’s historical times.
? Earth’s highest Himalayan Mountains are of sedimentary rock origin containing marine fossils.
? The sea used to cover the American continent’s Great Plains from Mexico to Alaska.
? Bones of modern man are found deposited together with bones of extinct animals in “early prehistoric” deposits in many places around the globe.
? Remnants of tropical coral reefs are found with palm trees in the present North Polar Circle.
? Antarctica has coal deposits.
? At least four Ice Ages have occurred in the historic times of man.
? The continents of the Western and Eastern Hemispheres separated before the Ice Ages occurred.
? The Ice Age of tropical Africa moved northward, and the Ice Age of India moved northward toward the Himalayan Mountains.
? Africa, North America and Europe had Ice Caps, while frigid Asia and Siberia were free of Ice Cap evidence.
? The Mammoth elephants of Siberia, found first in 1799, were “quick frozen” with identifiable food in their mouths and stomachs. Their flesh was edible and fresh when thawed, and their hair and hides were perfectly preserved. The food they customarily ate was growing around them in a warm-temperate to tropical climate at the time of their “quick freeze.” Great quantities of Mammoth tusks wash up on the shores of arctic islands.
? Pictographs by man, and mass graves of mixed animals and man show that “prehistoric” Mammoths lived in historic times of man.
? North American Indian natives migrated northward, following the receding Ice Cap of the Ice Age.
? All world cultures have oral histories of violent world-wide catastrophes which changed the earth several times, and which involved floods, hurricanes , earthquakes and fires.
? Several cultures report that the sun stood still in the sky and did not set. Some report that the sun went down, but the sky remained light as day all night until the sun rose again the next day.
? The skies rained down burning stones and liquid material.
? Enormous boulders weighing more than 10,000 tons are found in erratic locations, great distances from their original sources.
? Great comet-planet bodies have passed close to the earth in historical times of man.
? Seas and rivers boiled, mountains melted, coastlines sank in the sea, valleys became mountains, great slabs of earth were ripped up into the air and disintegrated, volcanoes erupted, water piled up high into the sky, ocean waves crashed over the land, bed rocks were broken up, etc.
? Seasons and day lengths have been disturbed, and new calendars had to be created following various historical catastrophes of global scale.
? The sun used to set in the East and rise in the West. It has reversed its position at least four times in man’s history.
? North and South poles have changed location four times in man’s history.
? Some igneous rocks are magnetized in a direction opposite to the earth’s present magnetic field orientation.
Velikovsky’s exhausting collection of evidences is especially credible, because he does not attempt to ascribe these events to divine agency. To the contrary, he makes clear his effort to assign their cause to natural forces. He avoids God, but is fiercely truthful in exposing available evidences.
In his other book, EARTH IN UPHEAVAL, Velikovsky digs deep into the earth’s crust for solid GEOLOGIC EVIDENCES which testify of sudden catastrophic events which shaped our earth. Consider these testimonies from the earth itself, and compare them with the slow millions-of-years changes professed by the theory of evolution. Whereas Velikovsky ascribes the cause of these cataclysmic events to passing planets, the authors of Chapter 9 point to the Flood of Noah. Both may be correct, since at least four major cataclysms are evidenced.
Gold mining diggings near Fairbanks, Alaska and the Tanana Valley in the Yukon unearthed enormous deposits of frozen gravel and muck, hundreds of feet thick. Packed in these deposits are vast numbers of animals, insects, trees, plants, and human artifacts, mixed with volcanic ash – all quick-frozen in extensive mass grave layers! The species buried together include extinct horses, Super-Bisons, Mastodons and Mammoths. These perished in recent post-glacial times, along with species still living. Plants are from all regions of the earth. Although their bones and bodies are brutally broken and torn apart, their frozen flesh, skin, hair and colorings are still fresh.
Northern Siberia abounds with quick-frozen bodies and bones of Mammoths, elephants, rhinoceri, buffalo and horses. Some islands 600 miles north of the Arctic Circle are actually composed of Mammoth bones and tusks, cemented together by frozen sand. Even the delicate eyeballs of some frozen Mammoths were well preserved when discovered in the late 1700’s and early 1800’s. Autopsies showed death came by suffocation/drowning, followed by immediate freezing.
In caves and valleys of England, Scotland, Wales and France are bones and teeth of elephants, rhinoceri, Hippopotami, horses, deer, huge tigers, bears, wolves, hyenas, foxes, hares, rabbits, ravens, pigeons, larks, snipes and ducks. These deposits include all ages, male and female. Other locations on earth reveal similar deposits of animals from widely separated regions, buried together, caused by a recent and general flood. The bones are undecayed and the red sandstone layer of this deposit is nearly 9000 feet thick! The buried creatures reveal contortions of fear, anger, alarm, suffocation and pain from a violent, widespread, sudden destruction. The bodies are buried closely packed, complete and in line with the sedimentary stratum. Even skin color is preserved.
Visualize Northern Britain. Here, animals and plants from tundra, temperate oak forests, deserts and jungles of many latitudes and altitudes, from salt oceans of North and South, and from fresh water rivers were all thrown together in quick successions into mass graves in chaotic fashion and buried alive, unnaturally, together with bones of extinct animals.
In the United States, from the Great Lakes to Arizona are located fish kills of similar bizarre circumstances.
Mixtures of animal bones from far distant latitudes are found in a cave near Cumberland, Maryland. The bones were broken but not weathered, and buried in gravel and rocks. Both extinct and modern species were buried together in sudden mass chaos.
The same situation exists near Peking, China, where masses of animal bones with human bones from Europe, Malaysia, and even an Eskimo are buried together. Again, the animals originated from tundra to tropics, and were thrown together violently into mass grave deposits by great water force, far away from any Ice Age activity.
In Europe, hilltop rock fissures from England to the Mediterranean contain bones of extinct and existing animals, thrown and buried together chaotically hundreds of feet above sea level. Bones of animals from widely differing climates and habitats are piled together in mass grave heaps. These bones are badly broken, but not decayed or marked by predators, and no feces are found. Among them are human fragments and artifacts. All ages of animals are found together, even fetuses, yet with no evidence of weathering before their sudden, abnormal burial, in recent time.
Near Britain’s North Sea shore are remains of former forests whose roots were sheared off about three feet below ground. Among these upright forest stumps are found the remains of 60 species of mammals, plus birds, frogs, snakes and 68 species of plants. These dead animals were native of tropical, temperate and northern climates. Six of the large mammal species still live on earth. The plant species, however, are of temperate climate, like the area today. Lying immediately on top of this North Sea forest graveyard is a fresh water deposit containing arctic plants and land shells. Upon the Arctic bed lies an ocean (marine) deposit.
Mass graveyards of widely differing species from various climates are also found in Germany and Switzerland.
Mastodons and other extinct mammals were buried suddenly and violently in Kentucky, San Pedro California, John Day Oregon, Colorado and the Southeastern United States. In the famous La Brea asphalt tar pits near Los Angeles are found mixed together plants of recent flora, modern humans and extinct animals. Their bones are splendidly preserved, but are broken, smashed, contorted and mixed incredibly by horrendous violence, and buried in gravel and tar.
At the Agate Spring Quarry in Sioux County, Nebraska lies a 20-inch thick bed of bones, like a pavement of intermingled bones of mammals, both extinct and modern species. They were deposited in sand which was moved by violent water. Tens of thousands of large animals were crushed into a thin grave bed by a common catastrophic event, not by slow accumulation.
On the Atlantic coast of Florida, remains of human bones and pottery lie together with bones of animals now extinct or not presently native to North America. All were buried at the same time.
Dead lakes in Nevada contain similar remains of extinct animals and man buried together.
Siberian polar regions contain remains of enormous petrified forests in wildly-strewn masses, mingled with animal bones, ashes, and ice, all quick-frozen in hills 180 to 300 feet thick! Britain’s North Sea buried forest has already been described as having a similar fate.
Large areas on many continents have experienced three or four drastic changes from dry land to fresh water or oceanic inundations. Bones of ocean whales are found in post-glacial deposits in Michigan, in Canada at 400 to 600 feet above sea level, and on farms of the Gulf States far south of the ice caps of North America. The St Lawrence River canyon extends 250 miles out into the North Atlantic Ocean floor. New England’s coast was once forested.
Farther south, the Atlantic Ocean surf only recently began to wash against the eastern foot of the Appalachian Mountains; the land has dropped. Recently the sea flooded the Great Plains from Mexico to Alaska. Walrus bones are found in Georgia and ice-age animals are found in marine deposits of arid Texas.
In China, some 50 feet beneath ocean (marine) deposits are found fresh water deposits of modern origin.
In South America, Darwin saw large species which had suddenly become extinct. He wondered why the Chilean coastal surf line stood 1300 feet above the present Pacific shore, with undecayed sea shells still visible. In the higher elevation Andes Mountain slopes, agricultural terraces – once cultivated for temperate climate crops – now disappear under the perennial snow line. Darwin climbed to 7000 feet into a petrified forest of broken trees, where he recorded that the soil beneath his feet had once been at sea level by the Atlantic ocean – now 700 miles to the east. In other words, much of modern Argentina and Chile was recently below sea level. The continent has raised dramatically in recent times.
At the southern end of Lake Titicaca (eleva. 12,500 feet) in South America’s Andes Mountains lie ruins of an ancient city. It was built with enormous stones, and once sat at sea level, where they grew corn on intensely-cultivated terraces that now extend up to 18,400 feet above sea level! The Andes have risen since this city was built! The lake bed is now tilted so that its high water line is 90 to 360 feet lower than before the uplift of the continent. This city was lifted 12,500 feet vertically in historic times, less than 4000 years ago, to an elevation now scarcely inhabitable by man! Surely even Darwin could see that these changes were sudden and dramatic.
Some 1200 miles east of the USA’s Atlantic coast, beneath 2 to 3 ? miles ocean water, on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, are coastal beaches undisturbed, with sediments too thin to measure. Yet sediments on nearby ridge slopes are thousands of feet thick. That ridge was once above sea level, and the valley floor was very recently sunk! In the Great Lakes region, the ancient Lake Agasiz lasted less than 1000 years. The ice age cover there melted under catastrophic conditions, in recent times, leaving a tilted lake and warped shoreline.
Utah’s Lake Bonneville was once 1000 feet deeper than the present high water line of Great Salt Lake. Four distinct lake shore lines are visible along the Wasatch Mountains from Interstate-15 near Salt Lake City, Utah. Corresponding riverbank shore lines are visible along the Snake River near Jackson , Wyoming.
Africa’s Lake Victoria had a water line 300 feet higher, and the rivers in that region once flowed in the opposite direction! The Nile River’s annual high water line used to be 22 feet higher than it is now.
A Hawaiian beach has raised 1200 feet. Other islands of the Pacific had similar experiences.
In the Atlantic, the Bermuda surf lines show elevation changes from 100 feet below sea level to 25 feet above, in sudden movements. Similar shoreline changes appear in Samoa, South Africa, Brazil, Australia, the Indian Ocean and the US Atlantic Coast.
There was a world-wide rise of land and a drop of the ocean level about 1500 B.C.! At that same time, the North Sea coast dropped, drowning Europe’s coastal regions. Buried forests, mass animal graves and sunken cities are evidences of that sudden drop.
CITIES AND HABITATIONS
Vast catastrophes repeatedly devastated the old world cities of Asia Minor, Crete, Mesopotamia, Iran, Syria, Egypt, Palestine, Cyprus and the Caucasus during recent Bronze and Neolithic ages.
Lakeshore human inhabitants in Europe in 1800 B.C. lived in houses built on poles, which were suddenly buried by mud and sand, then rebuilt in 1200 B.C., only to be re-buried again by a high water catastrophe in the 8th century B.C. and never rebuilt. At these two natural disasters, the lake beds were tilted on a massive scale all over Europe, not long before Rome conquered Europe. Thick populations of humans and animals disappeared, and the climate changed drastically! Active mines and mountain passes in the Alps were abandoned.
Drastic changes in climate, vegetation and human prosperity are noted in Europe, Africa and Scandinavia about 2500 B.C. to 800 B.C. Some periods had year-round snowfall and winter climates.
Turkey’s legendary city of Troy was destroyed by a cataclysmic earthquake and fire. All of Asia Minor suffered from the same catastrophes. Several times their cities were rebuilt upon the ruins of the previous foundations, only to be re-destroyed by similar repeated disasters – as many as six times! Great cataclysms on a global scale unknown in modern history leveled all Mid-Eastern cities with earthquake and fire, often ending civilized cultures and leaving only nomadic bands of poverty-stricken survivors to struggle in changed climates with severely-altered topography.
Great civilizations ended abruptly in Egypt, India, Asia Minor and Europe about 1500 B.C. and 700 to 800 B. C. At about the time of Moses’ exodus from Egypt (1500 B.C.), a great catastrophe of earthquake and volcanic activity destroyed the Mediterranean island of Crete. About 50 years later it happened again.
ICE AGES, ICE CAPS AND GLACIERS
Earth’s Ice Ages formed and receded four times in rapid, but erratic succession, in recent historical times of man! The various ice ages came suddenly, but not at the earth’s present poles. They occurred in temperate latitudes: Canada, India, Africa, Europe, Madagascar and equatorial Brazil. They did not occur at the present frigid zones, such as Northeast Siberia, where only marks of water invasion show. Northern Greenland once grew subtropical plants.
Ice caps, once two miles thick suddenly disappeared. The heat required to form an ice age cap is equal to the heat needed to melt a body of iron five times larger than the ice cap that resulted! Even if the sun disappeared and the earth lost all its heat, there would be no Ice Age! Earth’s water masses would freeze in place, but there would be no ice cap formation over a land mass. TO FORM AN ICE CAP requires first enough heat to evaporate the water bodies sufficiently to put adequate moisture vapor into the atmosphere. Then, there would follow a sudden ice deposit at the two polar axes. Only an energy source external to the earth could initiate this catastrophic sequence! What unusual forces could suddenly heat the earth’s water bodies enough to fill the atmosphere with moisture, then cause that atmospheric water to suddenly condense as snow and ice in a concentrated ice cap, instead of falling as rain or snow world wide?
Measurements of the Niagara Falls bedrock erosion rate shows that the North American Ice-Age Cap melted recently, between the years 1500 B.C. and 500 B.C. There were four Ice Ages, with three interglacial periods. The Alps glaciers are only 4000 years old. China’s red loam soil is red due to a drastic temperature change, Similar red-colored clay is found across the surface of the Western Hemisphere, and on the Pacific Ocean floor, indicating sudden cold temperatures.
FAULTS, RIFTS AND DESERTS
Earth’s longest fault runs from Syria to the tip of South Africa, from latitudes 36 degrees N. to 28 degrees S., one third of the distance from pole to pole – one sixth of the earth’s circumference! The Jordan River follows this rift from Galilee to the Dead Sea. Enormous East-West tension pulled the earth’s crust apart, causing violent lava flows to spew from this awesome fissure. Similar tension rifts are found on the moon.
Oral traditions among nearby African natives reveal that this global-scale rift happened in the time of historic man, at the same time that the great Sahara Desert was formed from an emptied sea bottom, and the earth’s greatest mountains were uplifted catastrophically.
Arabia previously had great rivers, lakes and geysers, but today is a waterless desert. Southern Arabia was once as lushly vegetated as neighboring India. Cultivation and civilization flourished in Arabia, but ended suddenly. The great Gobi Desert region of Mongolia became dried up as suddenly as did the Arabian and Sahara Deserts.
America’s Columbia River Plateau is made up of extensive lava flows, which issued from a rift crossing much of the Northwestern United States. Human artifacts are found among these lava flows.
Earth’s highest mountains, the Himalayas, rose from beneath the sea some 3000 feet and uplifted Southward during the recent Ice Age, while man lived on the adjoining plains. That ice Age ended during the great ancient cultures of China, India, Egypt and Sumaria. The final uplift of the Himalayas occurred in the life of modern man. Man’s polished stone artifacts are found in the formations of wind-blown glacial clay soils (loess). Earth’s highest mountains are her youngest. The geology is obvious, yet men prefer to believe an evolutionary myth.
The Himalayan foot hills of India contain enormous fossil beds of both extinct and modern mammals, which originated in temperate and tropical jungle climates, and from the sea. All were buried suddenly and violently together in several repeat catastrophes. All of Southeast Asia was affected by these disasters. Similar deposits lie in Burma, separated by 4000 feet of sands. The animal bones are mixed with entire trees from uprooted forests.
All of earth’s greatest mountain ranges demonstrate clear geologic evidence of indescribable, overpowering natural violence that ripped earth’s surface well into recent historic times of man. Modern earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are merely mild readjustments, relieving stresses lingering from these recent cataclysms.
Every segment of planet earth testifies of repeated upheavals. The Alps and Juras, Gibraltar and Sicily, Himalayas, Andes, Rockies and both the Atlantic and Pacific Ridges are all historic events in the time of man! Mountain ranges thousands of miles long uplifted, overturned, folded and over-thrusted, with individual fault planes 20 to 40 miles long. Igneous volcanic deposits 10,000 to 30,000 feet thick spewed out in flows of continental dimensions! In Norway and Scotland mountains were shifted upward and over other mountains and valleys.
In the mountain-building process, volcanic forces were unleashed suddenly, melting solid rock into plastic and liquid forms, fracturing and metamorphosing existing sedimentary and igneous beds. The entire surface of the earth was drastically altered in these events. North America’s entire Rocky Mountain front heaved Eastward over the plains for many miles. Europe’s older, majestic Alps were thrust up and Northward 100 miles toward Europe on top of more recent formations. In the process, The Matterhorn was overturned! The Alps contain stone-age artifacts of recent man, uplifted now to uninhabitable glacial zones. Either the Alps raised since the Ice Age and carried man’s artifacts up with them, or you must believe men of temperate climate could inhabit 8,000 foot elevations during an Ice Age.
Huge boulders marked by water erosion are scattered erratically among the hills and valleys of Southern China. Boulders from Canada cover New England and the Great Lakes area, some weighing 10,000 to 18,000 tons each! Enormous boulders from the Alps are resting high up on the Jura Mountains to the West of their origin. From Norway’s mountains huge boulders are scattered over Germany and England. Boulders from Finland lie in Poland and Moscow, Russia. A single chalk slab in Sweden, displaced from its original site, measures three miles long by 1000 feet wide by 200 feet thick.
COAL AND OIL
Coal beds 13,000 feet thick exist on earth. Lignite coal is made of trees partially converted into coal. Soft Bituminous coal more brittle; it’s plant parts are identifiable, and it contains sulphur. Anthracite coal (hard coal) is metamorphosed Bituminous coal. Some coal beds show 40 to 1000 successive beds overlying each other, with some individual beds over 50 feet thick – laid down in one sudden deposit. Salt water animal bodies are fossilized into these temperate-forest coal beds, along with boulders from far away origins, tropical coral and vertebrates from all over the globe.
How could so many coal layers occur? It would take a forest 6,000 feet thick to compress into one 50-foot thick coal bed. What heat source converted great forests into coal under anaerobic combustion? How did some patches of tree leaves survive the process still green within those coal beds? How could insect colors, animal skins and flesh remain preserved and un-decayed within some spots in those coal beds far beneath the earth’s surface? Coal was created under cataclysmic circumstances, NOT by the traditionally-accepted slow accumulation process, as purported by the theories of uniformity and organic evolution. Similarly, oil in the Gulf of Mexico was deposited only a few thousand years ago, NOT a few million years ago.
Why did land masses of Europe, Siberia and North America move first away from their original single land mass toward the equator, and then retreat away from the equator? Or did the equator move? The continents both of the Eastern and Western Hemispheres separated from each other before the Ice Ages occurred.
The universe is naturally electro-magnetically charged. Planets are electrically charged bodies. Sun spots and comet tails are also electrically charged. Light from stars is polarized. Our sun and its planets share an electrical balance mechanism. Solar tides in earth’s atmosphere are 16 times stronger than are the lunar tides on earth.
Liquid magma on earth is non magnetic. But when it cools into rock, it becomes magnetized in an orientation in line with and determined by the earth’s magnetic field at that location on the globe.
In all parts of our globe, igneous rocks are found which show a magnetism reversed from the earth’s current magnetic field orientation. This verifies that the earth’s magnetic field was reversed at the time that those rocks cooled, compared with the earth’s current magnetic orientation. In addition, the rocks of reverse polarity are more strongly magnetized than earth’s current magnetic field can account for – up to 10 to 100 times stronger! An external magnetic field large enough to shift the earth’s axis, such as a large passing comet or planet, could also be strong enough to polarize new magma flows to this degree. Such an event could be the likely cause of such flows from the earth’s disturbed crust.
Paleomagnetic evidence shows that the earth’s geomagnetic poles have reversed several times – the most recent in historic times of man. The moon also demonstrates recent catastrophic volcanic activity caused by an external force.
When a mass of matter (earth) rotates about an axis like a gyroscope, it cannot make itself change, and rotate about a new axis. Only an external force can cause a change in axis. Internal forces cannot alter the axis, the rotation speed or direction of the mass.
Earth’s surface has never changed sufficient to deflect its own poles even one half dozen miles, let alone a half-dozen degrees! Moon tidal forces are inadequate to move the earth’s crust. The earth presently rotates with a slight wobble, indicating a possible displacement of the axis in the past. Yet earth’s magnetic poles have reversed several times.
The entire Atlantic Coastal plain from New Jersey to Florida is covered by hundreds of thousands of oval craters, caused by meteoric showers falling from Northwest to Southeast, possibly from a large comet during the last Ice Age. More craters make a swath through the Appalatians. Western Arabia is covered by sharp, black stones from recent comet-sized meteorites.
UNIFORMITY (GRADUAL CHANGE) – VS – CATASTROPHISM (SUDDEN CHANGE)
The false theory of ORGANIC EVOLUTION is based upon the equally false theory of UNIFORMITY. UNIFORMITY, the brain child of Charles Lyell, states that today’s slow rate of observable geologic change has always been the same, and that every change takes millions of years. UNIFORMITY defies actual evidences of repeated sudden and violent changes – catastrophes.
Charles Darwin, a devotee of Lyell, made one round-the-world trip by sea as his primary field experience in geology and paleontology. Most of his observations were in South America, made from aboard ship! From this trip came his theory of the origin of species – the theory of ORGANIC EVOLUTION.
Evolutionary concepts of NATURAL SELECTION and SURVIVAL-OF-THE-FITTEST cannot explain the sudden extinction of entire races of living creatures, many of which were better suited to survive in their environment than are some living species. Larger animals went extinct more easily than smaller ones, which seemed less able to survive the global catastrophes.
No new species have evolved into existence, but several species have become extinct. No existing species has changed beyond its genetic limits. Not even scientifically-accelerated cross-breeding has or can produce a new species/race. Slow evolutionary chance processes are mathematically incapable of creating new species forms of life. The body’s response to external influences cannot change the hereditary genetic code inborn into the body’s cells.
Tree ring studies of earth’s oldest trees, 3200 B.C. years (1300 B.C.) show drastic climatic conditions between 750 B.C. and 685 B.C. Drastic weather changes affected Europe, Africa and Scandinavia about 2500 B.C. to 800 B.C. Great changes in ocean levels occurred about 1500 B.C.
Radiocarbon dating methods are inadequate for telling the earth’s age. Carbon dating is based upon cosmic rays hitting earth’s upper atmosphere and breaking nitrogen atoms into hydrogen and radioactive carbon (unstable carbon with two extra electrons). The radioactive carbon is then combined with oxygen into CO2, which is mostly absorbed into the ocean, with some incorporated into plant and animal issues.
At the death of an organism, the half-life of the radiocarbon can be measured. But, the accuracy is limited to just those organic objects from 1000 years to 20,000 years old. In addition, fossil bones and shells are unsuitable for carbon dating, because organic carbon is easily lost in the fossilization process. Honest carbon dating produces Ice Age dates of only 3000 years ago.
Carbon dating ASSUMES that: 1) Cosmic radiation has always been the same (Uniformity theory), and 2) The amount of ocean water has always been the same (Uniformity theory), since most radiocarbon is absorbed by the ocean.
SUMMARY OF VELIKOVSKY’S EVIDENCES
Our planetary system is characterized by active processes and rapid changes. Great catastrophes have altered the earth – climatic, volcanic and tectonic catastrophes. The ocean floors have experienced repeated volcanic catastrophes, with great upheavals evident in the Arctic Ocean, Siberian tundras, Alaska, Greenland, England, Wales, France, the Alps and Jura Mountains, Gibraltar, Sicily, Sahara, Africa, Arabia, Himalaya Mountains, Burma, China, Andes Mountains, California, Rocky Mountains, Columbia Plateau, Maryland, Nebraska, Michigan, Vermont, Carolina, Atlantic Ridge and Pacific bottom. EVERY SEGMENT OF EARTH TESTIFIES OF REPEATED CATASTROPHIC UPHEAVALS!
False theories of UNIFORMITY, ORGANIC EVOLUTION and the Ice Ages are void of evidence. All theories of gradual change are scientifically inadequate.
The ocean floor lacks evidence of the thick sediments expected if the ocean had always covered the floor unchanged. The world’s highest mountains were once beneath the ocean. The continents have been sea-covered several times. Former land areas are now beneath the sea. Several sea bottoms are now dry land.
Consider these important questions:
Why is gravity stronger over deep oceans?
Why haven’t Ice Ages recurred at regular intervals?
The most plausible theory that meets the criteria to account for the actual evidences revealed on earth is that of periodic changes in the earth’s axis, caused by an external force, such a passing comet or planet – Venus, perhaps.
IN PLACE OF THE SLOW, GRADUAL CHANGES PROPOSED BY THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION, RECONSTRUCT THE EVENTS AS THE EARTH ITSELF TESTIFIES THEY TOOK PLACE:
Due to an external force, the earth’s axis was shifted suddenly. Air and water masses would continue to move in their former directions by inertia, causing hurricanes and tidal waves over continents, carrying huge boulders, forests, gravel, sand and living creatures to be dashed about in violent chaos over the land masses.
This change in axis would develop great friction heat in the earth’s crust, resulting in catastrophic fractures and lava eruptions, forcing some sea floors upward in places, making some valleys into mountains, and dropping some previous mountains and land areas to lower elevations. The entire shape of the earth’s surface would be rapidly changed.
Some mountains would be slid plastically up and over other land masses, bending, folding, fracturing and faulting drastically in the heat and pressure of movement. Lakes would tilt and empty, while river systems would change courses and even direction of flow. Some sea coasts would rise above sea level, while others would collapse their coastal habitations into a watery grave in seconds.
Forests would explode into fire and be ripped away in mass by hurricanes and tidal waves. Sea floors would rise and empty, becoming inland valleys and barren deserts. Moved by earth’s readjusting rotational forces, global-scale tides and hurricanes would slosh back and forth from poles to equator, as the earth sought stability on its new axis, repeatedly carrying waves of destruction debris, alternately excavating and depositing layers of mixed material from global sources.
Nearly every climate would be changed. Many creatures and humans would be annihilated. Earth’s atmosphere would fill with moisture evaporated by the intense frictional heat. Dense atmospheric dust from hurricanes and volcanic eruptions would obscure the sun.
Former glaciers and polar ice caps would suddenly break apart and melt rapidly. Beneath a sunless sky filled with moisture and particulate matter, the new poles would rapidly be buried under incredible deposits of snow and ice, quick-freezing everything in its frigid zone of influence, as the earth would wobble erratically toward a new stable rotation on its new axial alignment.
Once the chaos settled, the earth would show an almost completely changed topography and climatic distribution. There would be new mountains, valleys, coastlines, river systems and lakes. Everywhere there would be profuse and extensive deposits of layers of debris. It would be an almost newly re-shaped earth surface.
Those living creatures which survived would face the task of adjusting to new climates, geographic features, food and shelter requirements, sunrise/sunset orientations and calendar calculations. Intelligent human survivors would obviously preserve some kind of written or oral history of such a cataclysmic event. At least four major catastrophes are recorded in human histories. The earth itself has recorded the physical evidences, for those humans intelligent enough to believe the evidences that abound!
Most human survivors would also be quick to ascribe their survival to their creator, in whose hands the external force was applied, for reasons best known to deity.
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