This is the final chapter of Bob Webster’s manuscript, Creation vs. Evolution.
CHAPTER 10 LDS CHRISTIAN SCIENTISTS TESTIFY
From THE CREATION, by Frank B. Salisbury, we glean the valuable information paraphrased here in Chapter 10.
P. 160 Only a small portion of the Geologic Time table exists at any one. location. All methods of age dating apply the principle of uniformitarianism.
P. 162 Sediments cannot be directly dated by the radioactive clock.
P. 175 No one in science has bothered to look for the evidence of cataclysms on a worldwide scale.
P. 180 – There is no way of demonstrating from the fossils alone that any one life form evolved into another.
P, 207 Darwin’s scheme of evolution depends completely upon some source of variety. Variety is the Achilles Heel of the entire evolutionary concept. Evolutionary theory requires mutations to provide variety: yet most mutations are either harmful or fatal.
P. 219 God hasn’t told the whole story, and science hasn’t collected all the data. The facts simply are not all in. Both sides require faith.
P. 221 The stratigraphic fossil record has always been evolution’s most attractive evidence.
P. 223 After 200 years of careful study, there is no fossil record of gradual evolution of phyla and divisions of living creatures! There are no intermediate stages! Complex forms appear suddenly in the record. The transitional forms simply are not there. No major group has obvious fossil predecessors!
P.225 – It is impossible to find rigorous p roof that any one fossil was the descendant of any other. The evolutionary sequences are merely implied!
P. 226 In many locations all over the earth, the cataclysmic origin of fossils is clearly indicated.
P. 227 There is no place on earth where all of the strata of the of the Geologic Time Table lie one on top of the other. The GTT was constructed on the pre-assumption that evolution occurred, and that organisms began simple and became increasingly more complex through time. This is merely self supporting “circular logic,” which is illogical and unscientific!
P. 228 – Numerous examples are known in which simple (supposedly older) life forms occur on top of more complex (younger) forms, with normal contacts between the sedimentary strata. This reality defies evolutionary theory. *** If even one strata or one fossil form is out sequence, then the entire evolutionary theory held by geologists is wrong! No compromise position is possible!
P. 231- Trinil Ape Man, alias Java Man (Pithicanthropuss erectus), is a proven hoax! Peking Man, once considered one of the strongest links in man’s alleged evolution, is even more tenuous than Java Man.
P. 233 THE STORY OF THE EVOLUTION OF MAN IS THE PRODUCT OF BASICALLY BAD SCIENCE!
P. 234 The scientific community has been totally convinced about an idea that has turned out wrong.
P. 235 The fossil record is the evolutionists’ strongest argument; yet it does not prove, nor even strongly support the theory of evolution.
P. 239 Scientific classification of living organisms, showing the complexity of their anatomy provides some of the strongest evidences against evolution. Evolution predicts a continuous sequence of organisms from the simplest to the most complex. But science shows that discontinuity is the over whelming rule in the geologic record.
P. 240- In natural selection, it is unlikely that a particular feature (such as the eye) would appear more than once during evolution. Yet many types of eyes exist in nature. The whole idea of evolution is completely disproven if evolution insists upon exact application of natural selection.
*** The reverence which men used to reserve for God is now bestowed upon assumed chance directed processes of nature, based on unprovable, atheistic assumptions.
P. 245 – In nature, homologous structures need not be controlled by identical or even related genes, and characters that are controlled by identical genes need not be homologous. These observations destroy the very foundation of the theory of evolution!
P. 247 – At one point, evolutionists proudly listed 180 “vestigial organs” which they claimed linked man with the “lower” forms of life. True science has shrunk that list to almost zero, as the true functions of these supposed “vestigial organs” are understood.
P. 251 – Molecular biology supports intelligent Creation.
P. 252 Minor creature adaptations are a far cry from producing new phyla, orders, families, and genera from some common ancestor. So called proof of evolution is in reality reduced to a few micro scale adaptations.
P. 253 It is enormously invalid to believe that the micro cases of adaptation prove the macro stale adaptations claimed.
P. 251 It is in the genes that evolutionary changes are alleged to originate. Yet, even the common genetic molecule called cytochrome C is too complex to be accounted for mathematically by the theory of evolution. Not even within the farthest limits of the conceivable expanses of Space is it mathematically possible!
P. 261- The evolutionist must rely on faith, much as the Creationist does. But evolutionary theory has no director. It is purely opportunistic and fortuitous.
P. 262 The evolutionary process faces impossible odds at each step, where the environment demanded the evolution of some new enzyme. Each time, the chances become vanishingly small. Consider all the coordinated body parts and intricate chemical react ions that would have to evolve separately, yet simultaneously.
P. 263 – Molecular biology has given us a deeper appreciation for the complexity and intricacy of life. Natural selection is inadequate to explain it. It is incapable of providing it. Variety would not appear often enough. Complexity is not accounted for by evolution’s purely mechanistic, chance directed, atheistic assumptions. Living cells must divide, multiply, and specialize at precisely the right times and places.
P. 265 Shakespeare was not written by letting monkeys randomly pound typewriters. Neither can
intricate enzymes be generated by chance All things testify of an intelligent and purposeful Creator.
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SCIENCE AND MORMONISM, by Melvin A. Cook and M. Garfield Cook is possibly the best LDS source of information on “LDS viewpoints.” The Cooks present, quote and compare the positions of all the “big names” among LDS scientists and theologians.
It becomes obvious that one can “prove” his own preferred position by quoting those LDS “big names” who favor that viewpoint. Just as in the rest of society, there are “big names” among LDS who favor literal Creation, others who favor evolution, and many in between. In other words, being LDS does not automatically mean you are anti evolution. Mormons appear to be just as diverse in their opinions on this subject as are members of any other religious group. But, Church Presidents have always supported Creation.
This reality makes it all the more important for the LDS individual to exercise his free agency and discover the truth for himself. As stated in the Foreword of this book, of all people on earth. members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints have the greatest advantage, and opportunity, to settle the science vs- religion controversy in their own minds. No other people have access to such a wealth of information on this subject as do the Latter day Saints.
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The rough draft for this publication, CREATION-VS-EVOLUTION, was begun in 1975. In late 1999, as I was preparing it at last for printing, I saw a new book of articles by LDS authors with impressive credentials, both scientific and ecclesiastic. But I rejected it for detailed study after reading in the Introduction that the compiler felt that in the case of any conflict between science and religion, he would favor science. Soon after, I noticed another new book, EARTH IN THE BEGINNING, by Dr. Eric N. Skousen (ES). There are many, many books on this topic, each with its own interpretations and conclusions, of course, like mine. ES discredits organic evolution as the source of living organisms, yet identifies a possible way in which the ancient fossil records could be as old as claimed, yet not conflict with Creation and The Fall of Adam theology. ES’s book seriously challenged my paradigm. I am thankful to have found it before finishing my own effort. It is a valuable addition to this section.
EARTH IN THE BEGINNING, by Eric N. Skousen, PHD, 1997, Verity Publishing
ES agrees with the “true science” evidences already presented herein that mortal death began after The Fall of Adam, that radiogenic dating methods cannot give accurate dates of anything older than the Fall – about 6000 years ago, that Adam was the first man on earth and the first mortal “flesh,” and that the earth’s mortal/temporal existence is programmed to last only about 6000 years (6 God-days) until the 7th God-day, the Lord’s millennium, that catastrophism (not uniformity) is the main geologic force.
Where ES opens “eyes to see” is his detailed and systematic interpretations of the scriptural stages of Creation, supported at key points by LDS General Authority (GA) statements. His sequence, in brief is:
1. Organization of intelligence and matter by Gods.
2. Birth of living spirits (spirit creation), including the living earth, creatures and God’s own children – all near Kolob.
3. Three Creation Epochs:
1. Placing spirit lives on the spirit earth for experience (Moses 2) near Kolob.
2. Transplanting of physically-born lives onto the physically-born earth in a lengthy, preparatory period (Moses 3; Abra. 3-5) near Kolob.
3a. Sanctification of prepared earth (extinction/removal of all preparatory life) at the 6th-7th Day/Time.
3b. Transplanting modern, immortal, physical life forms onto the “prepared and sanctified” earth on the 7th Day/Time – near Kolob.
3c. Fall of Adam, and the fall of earth from Kolob into solar orbit; initiating mortality (7th Day/Time).
ES feels that earth strata containing “ancient fossils” are from the preparatory period (#3.2 above). In other words, ES says there was death and aging during the preparatory period before the Fall. Then, once earth was cleansed and sanctified of all preparatory life (by extinction or removal), the “modern” physical life forms for which God originally intended to occupy earth during mortality were transplanted here as immortal/Terrestrial beings, with no death until the Fall.
This is how ES accommodates the abundance of scientific evidences of ancient life forms found in earth’s rock record. None of these ancient, preparatory forms, however, are ancestors of the “modern” forms. In fact, all life forms are individual creations, incapable of replicating outside the orderly, genetic limits of their own kind. All were transplanted to earth from sources on other planets.
According to ES, EVOLUTION IS FALSE, because:
1. Science doesn’t support it; there is no geologic record of any ancestral origin or transition stages from ancient forms to modern forms, nor within any ancient or modern forms. No “missing link” or transition forms exist in the scientific, geologic evidence.
2. All life is created/born/organized by intelligent God-Creators. Development of life by accumulative accident is irrational, illogical and unscientific. All scientific evidence displays order, control and similarities.
3. Earth and the “inorganic” elements are all living intelligences. Earths, planets, stars, moons and all physical objects in all galaxies of space are NOT merely the result of accidental, natural forces of the universe. Intelligent and purposeful Gods control and use the natural laws to organize/create all matter, for the ultimate purpose of developing and perfecting Gods’ offspring into Gods, like their parents. It is a sophisticated, intelligent and stringent process.
4. ?”Time” is irrelevant and unmeasurable in the geologic evidence. ES’s Geologic Column (formerly called the Geologic Time Table) classifies rock strata from oldest to youngest, but does not assign any ages. Age dating anything older than the Fall (6000 years) is not scientifically possible with available technology, because of all the unknowns of the geologic process.
ES’s book expands one’s paradigm of Gods’ creation sequence, and also accommodates the known fossil evidence. Since the fossil record is obviously real, it must be explained somehow, and ES feels the answer is in the preparatory period described above. His interpretation also explains the doctrinal problem of “no death until after the Fall,” and reaffirms that modern life did not descend from those ancient forms. Those preparatory forms lived, and then either died out (extinction), or were removed before the earth was sanctified for modern forms, including Adam and Eve. Consequently, there were no “pre-Adam men,” only a rare few preparatory hominids.
1. In spite of ES’s careful discussion points, I still struggle with the seeming inconsistency in whether the physical earth of ES’s 2nd Creation Epoch was placed promptly into solar orbit after its birth, or kept near Kolob. ES says earth wasn’t put into solar orbit until after the Fall. My problem with this view is that our earth needed a day-night environment, and Kolob’s neighborhood is in the galactic center where there is constant light and no night. Our solar system, however, is an experienced “jig” designed to process probationary earths like ours, and has all of the day/night, warmth, tide-pull conditions necessary for the scheduled preparatory life period ES describes. I grant God the ability to make necessary adjustments in solar orbits to supply the slightly warmer and brighter conditions, which ES says were present during the preparatory period, and then to “fine tune” it again for the modern life period – first paradisiacal, and then mortal earth.
2. ES also discounts the concept of a rainbow-free thick vapor atmosphere prior to Noah’s Flood. It still seems plausible to me, as described elsewhere in this text, although I agree that the moisture-rich atmosphere was not the major source of the deluge waters. The lack of UV light screened out by a thick atmosphere could well explain the longevity question of Adam and his pre-diluvian posterity. Having a moisture-dense atmosphere does not imply that there was no sunlight or night/day conditions.
3. My third area of struggle is with ES’s view that the earth’s original, single land mass of “Pangaea” was “divided” by the Pacific Ocean, not the Atlantic Ocean. After such detailed documentation on other points in his text, this undocumented opinion shocks me. The subsequently “divided” Western Hemisphere obviously matches Europe and Africa on the Atlantic side. This is the least acceptable of all of ES’s points.
My major paradigm shock is accepting the preparatory period at all, with its death and decay, and “millions of years” dating. If time and decay were operational during a preparatory period, but irrelevant then, how can those ages from that period now be somehow “counted” by modern dating to be in the millions of years? Yet, ES’s quote (p.313) from LDS GA’s is stunning – that concepts of “no death before the Fall” is not an official doctrine of the Church ),J.E. Talmadge 4-7-1931.This is what opens the door of possibility for ES’s preparatory period scenario, to fill the geologic rock records as modern scientists now identify them.
In brief, ES’s position changes the doctrinal viewpoint from one of “No death before the Fall” to “No death during the Garden of Eden period, until after the Fall.” That is a significant difference. The rock record is there. It has to fit somehow, and ES’ view fills that awkward and disputed void.
If evolution’s detestable “millions of years” ages can now be tolerably explained and accepted as having occurred in a preparatory period, as ES proposes (before the Fall only), then those fossil ages don’t conflict with either the scriptural doctrine of “6000 years of earth’s mortal existence (since the Fall)” or the “No death until after the Fall” doctrine. By satisfying both of those two major conflicts, ES relieves most of the perpetual stress between science and religion, and at the same time maintains two other sacred positions –
1. That modern life (especially man) is NOT descended from any ancient forms (certainly not lower forms), and
2. That evolution theory is still verifiably as scientifically bankrupt and atheistic as religion has always claimed it is.
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